發布日期 : 2020/11/05
英國自18、19世紀資本主義及工業革命興起以來，農民被迫遷移至都市成為勞工，由於薪資微薄，不僅被資本家嚴重剝削，也因為經濟市場化導致食品價格上漲，1844年位於曼徹斯特附近的羅虛戴爾小鎮，28位紡織工人為了便宜購得食物及日常用品，決定開設自己的商店，並從之前失敗的經濟合作經驗吸取教訓，開設了「羅虛戴爾公平先驅社」（Rochdale Equitable Pioneer's Society），這是一個為社員共同購入民生物資的消費合作社，起初只供應麵粉、燕麥、糖及黃油四種商品。這個合作社在1855年時吸收了1,400名社員，到了1870年則多達5,560人，可謂世上第一個經營成功的合作社。羅虛戴爾公平先驅社的組織者最著名的，是設計了「羅虛戴爾原則」（Rochdale Principles） ，這套原則至今也為世界各地的合作社之運作提供了基礎。
Origin of Cooperative
Since the rise of capitalism and the Industrial Revolution in the 18th and 19th centuries in Britain, farmers were forced to migrate to cities to become laborers. Due to their meager wages, they were not only severely exploited by capitalists, but also because of the marketization of the economy which led to rising food prices. In the small town of Xudell, 28 textile workers decided to open their own shops in order to buy food and daily necessities at a low price. They learned from the previous failed economic cooperation experience and opened the (Rochdale Equitable Pioneer's
Society), this is a consumer cooperative that purchases civilian biological assets for its members. At first, it only supplied four commodities: flour, oats, sugar and butter. This cooperative absorbed 1,400 members in 1855, and reached 5,560 in 1870, making it the first successful cooperative in the world. The organizer of the Rochdale Equity Pioneer is the most famous for designing the "Rochdale Principles". This set of principles has also provided the basis for the operation of cooperatives around the world.
Since the world’s first successful cooperative was established in 1844, the ICA Cooperative Alliance was established in 1895 and is one of the oldest non-governmental organizations.
The International Cooperative AllianceThe (ICA)
International Cooperative Alliance unites, represents and serves cooperatives worldwide.
Founded in 1895, it is one of the oldest non-governmental organisations and one of the largest ones measured by the number of people represented: 1,2 billion cooperative members on the planet. The International Cooperative Alliance works with global and regional governments and organisations to create the legislative environments that allow cooperatives to form and grow.
Over 300 organisations from over 100 countries are members of the International Cooperative Alliance. The ICA’s members are international and national cooperative organisations from all sectors of the economy, including agriculture, banking, consumer, fisheries, health, housing, insurance, and industry & services.